Diseases of the Kidney:


The symptoms and presentation of kidney disease are a direct consequence of the portion of the nephron (active unit of excretion in the kidney) that has been most affected. These diseases include:


  • Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Nephritic Syndrome
  • Acute renal failure
  • Tubular defects
  • Renal stones
  • End-stage Renal (kidney) disease

Nephrotic Syndrome:

  • Nephrotic syndrome consists of a group of diseases whose common manifestations are caused by a loss of the barrier to protein.
  • Large amounts of protein are lost in the urine which causes serious metabolic abnormalities.
  •  More than 95% of individuals seen with this syndrome are accounted for by three systemic diseases namely diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and amyloidosis.

Nephritic Syndrome:

  • Nephritic Syndrome or Acute Glomerulonephritis incorporates the clinical manifestations of a group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the capillary loops of the glomerulus (part of a nephron).
  • These diseases are sudden in onset, last a short time, and proceed to either complete recovery or to the development of chronic nephrotic syndrome or end stage renal failure.

Tubular Defects:

  • The function of the kidney tubules make them susceptible to injury.
  • The enormous energy requirements and expenditures of the tubules in performing the work of active secretion and re-absorption make this part of the kidney particularly susceptible to ischemic damage (the damage caused by an inadequate flow of blood to the tubules due to constriction or blockage of the blood vessels supplying the area).
  • High concentrations of many toxic drugs can destroy or damage various segments of the tubules. Products listed by Category

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